1. Firstly, this is not a sub for modern neo-paganism (see rule 4). But to your main point, the simple answer is that there really aren't any 'traditional' Norse prayers or chants that exist (hence the 'neo-' in neo-paganism). There is no continuous tradition of Norse paganism that survives from the pre-Christian period, so whatever 'hymns' or 'prayers' you find in those circles are likely to be modern invention.

  2. If your reason for learning is to read Old Norse literature, then just learn Old Norse. It may be 'easier' to learn one language if you already know another, but of course that doesn't mean it is easier to learn two languages rather than one. That sort of attitude just creates unnecessary barriers to entry.

  3. Chibnall has stated that is not the case.

  4. That's not evidence from the show itself. It doesn't matter what the writer thinks - it's what is presented on screen that counts.

  5. Yes, there is evidence in the show that there are pre-First Doctors, but there is no evidence that there is a Doctor between Two and Three. Believe me, I wish that was the explanation, but there is no evidence to suggest that whatsoever, meanwhile the show presents us with the actual answer. Fugitive is pre-First Doctor.

  6. Oh I fully agree that that was the writer's intention, but since it is never actually stated explicitly, I'd rather go with the alternative explanation if it better fits the facts. We don't know how RTD and future writers will handle the whole Timeless Child mess - perhaps it will go the way of the half-human 'revelation'. If so, there's enough wiggle room for writers to still make use of the Fugitive Doctor without dredging up the rest of Chibnall's mess.

  7. We also don't know how big Utumno was. Considering it was built by a Vala who could raise up whole mountain ranges, it seems quite possible that Utumno had outposts and tunnels stretching south as far as Proto-Angmar.

  8. I'd prefer if she was a season 6B Doctor, makes a lot more sence

  9. Yes, this is really the only place within the established timeline where an otherwise unknown version of 'The Doctor' with a police-box would seem to fit. It also allows one to completely ignore the whole mess of the 'timeless child' plotline, which is a major benefit for anyone (novels, Big Finish etc.) who wants to reuse this character in the future.

  10. Or the Fugitive Doctor has a TARDIS that took Police Box shape for coincidental reasons

  11. Coincidence is always an option, but it's a poor explanation.

  12. Which one do you picture as the default when listening/reading? That'll be your answer.

  13. Check out Jackson Crawford's YouTube videos on runes, specifically the Younger Futhark. It's fairly easy to pick up the basics.

  14. Not an expert and never did myself just throwing out ideas: Have you tried stream from angel studio official site?

  15. I think the problem will be from streaming to YouTube, not the source of the video itself. The copyright flagging will be an automatic process by YouTube, so it would likely be a problem even if you had written permission from the creator - YouTube is notoriously bad with this sort of thing. The Chosen is free anyway, which you would think makes the whole question of copyright irrelevant.

  16. In norse mythology you have to always remember, these are mostly interpretations and researchs. Because the norsemen didn’t have any alphabet to write history. The info we have is either from the songs and poets and stories of the people (especially bards) or from christian prists who were decent enough to write the stories of most enteresting pagan lores in mankind history. And they changed many things because of the fear they had of norse paganism.

  17. They certainly had an alphabet - the younger futhark - they just didn't use it for writing literature. And the idea that Christians changed many things out of fear of paganism is very speculative. More likely they were just ignorant of the traditions by the point they were writing them down.

  18. Well, it is an interesting thought, but I have to admit that I personally find it unlikely. I don't think the presence of Celtic folklore on Iceland was very prevalent at the time, if it even was before. When Norsemen first settled on Iceland, the only other people living there were Christian Irish monks. Whether they had any influence from Celtic folklore is itself impossible to prove, and furthermore, they were routed by the Norsemen pretty quickly. I just don't see where the influence would come from. I can't disprove your statement since I don't know enough about Celtic folklore and its influence in specific areas, but I just have a hard time seeing how Snorri would be influenced by it.

  19. The sagas mention Icelanders having celtic slaves, so I guess that would be a potential origin - i.e. viking age contact via trading / raiding. But Christian influence certainly seems more likely.

  20. Coming from a Hindi-speaking background I oddly find a lot of these spellings much easier and similar to sounds in my own language - which is odd considering Tolkien based Elvish on Finnish (I believe), which isn’t even an Indo-European language, let alone an Indo-Iranian one.

  21. Quenya was based on Finnish, but Sindarin - the more common Elvish language - was based on Welsh. But of course Tolkien also drew plenty of inspiration from the other languages he studied.

  22. I also think the extent to which Tolkien based Quenya on Finnish and Sindarin on Welsh is misunderstood or exaggerated in some people's minds. He didn't necessarily borrow a lot of vocabulary so much as phonological and grammatical features, like the presence of an elaborate case system (Finnish/Quenya), or the use of vowel mutation to form some plural nouns (Welsh/Sindarin).

  23. I really dislike these sort of headlines. 'Scientists' are not a relevant authority on what mediaeval Scandinavians knew or believed. Legendary monsters may often have some basis in empirical observation, but this is not always necessary, and monster stories take on a life of their own within a culture's imagination.

  24. In terms of accurate sources, we have very little direct evidence. In the New Testament itself, most of the disciples are little more than names. Beyond that, there are lots of traditions about the disciples and where they ended up, with varying levels of reliability. An important secondary source on the early church is Eusebius of Caesarea, who attempts to explain the history of the Church from its beginning, up to his own day in the 4th century.

  25. I suppose it sets a lower limit chronologically. The period of time beginning with the arrival of the 'English' in the 5th century. Obviously if you're studying that period of history, the surrounding context is going to be relevant (both in terms of the Britons and continental 'Saxons'), but the English (i.e. Anglo-Saxons) are the focal point.

  26. Yeah, the way I see it, 5th-11th century (or about then) is what I would Early Medieval England, and (I think) that matches up to how it is used academically. That helps delineate a cultural and linguistic space which obviously had its own regional specificities and hybrid zones. On top of that you see a set of institutions which are more related to one another than those outside of England.

  27. A helpful summary of the evidence. On your last point about the Norse cosmos being something of a 'trichotomy', I partly agree. I think we probably at least need to do away with the widespread idea of 'nine realms', however the number is filled. I think the number nine in Norse is probably roughly analogous to seven in the Judeo-Christian world, where it is essentially symbolic of perfection or completion. For instance, the book of Revelation mentions the 'seven spirits of God', but I've never heard of any Christian trying to take this literally. 'The nine worlds' I suspect works in a similar way, representing 'the entire cosmos, however it is categorised' (and there would probably have been many different ways of thinking on that topic anyway).

  28. Hel is never described as its own realm. Odin banishes Hel (the goddess) to Niflheim, besides which it seems fairly clear that Hel (the location) can be thought of as another great hall, along the lines of Valholl in Asgard, only much less fun.

  29. The trouble is, that way of thinking already rests on the assumption of nine separate realms as a core cosmological concept, and also that a 'realm' is some sort of clearly defined category. If we scrap the whole idea of trying to make up a numbered list, I think we have a better chance of getting at the core ideas that would have been recognised across the pre-Christian Norse (and perhaps wider Germanic) world. By the time Snorri was writing, these ideas had probably already become quite muddled, and he was doing his best to impose an artificial order. Snorri often provides clear categories and neat explanations, but these generally need to be treated with caution. If we put Snorri to one side, and try and build up a picture of Norse cosmology from the large corpus of sagas and poems (both Eddic and skaldic) we may get a more representative view.

  30. Read the sagas. Nothing beats engaging with the primary sources, and they also happen to be great stories. The historical basis of the berserkers is a matter of dispute, but they are a great literary motif.

  31. Check out Jackson Crawford's YouTube videos - he provides good reliable information on Norse language and myth. Also bear in mind that there are a few different runic alphabets. For Old Norse, the one you want is the Younger Futhark. It shouldn't take too long to learn the basics of how the alphabet works. But steer clear of the new age/neo-pagan types. There's a lot of misinformation out there from people who are not well grounded in the study of the language and primary sources.

  32. I don’t know if they will make him his Half-Brother, because in Catholic tradition James and Jude were said to be his Cousins by Joseph. Jonathan Roumie is Catholic and don’t know if he will be critical of that. But James the Just as he is also known as would be a great character for the show. Both he and Jude are mentioned in S3 when Jesus comes home to Nazareth and asks where they are. James was also in the other Biblical Series "A.D. Kingdom & Empire" he was one of my favorite characters from the show. I would like to see them appear.

  33. As far as I'm aware, the Catholic tradition is divided on whether they are half-brothers or cousins. The main thing Catholics agree on is that they are not full brothers, as many Protestants (though by no means all) assume.

  34. I don’t know how someone could call themselves a true believer and also believe that Joseph was Jesus biological father

  35. You're quite right of course, but the important qualification is 'biological'. At least in Roman society, adoptive children were considered full children in legal terms. So I don't have a problem referring to Joseph as Jesus' father (by adoption, and in the eyes of society), but that in no way invalidates the virgin birth or Jesus' divinity. Though I appreciate the clarification is needed.

  36. I was going to say the Eternals, but I forgot about Can You Hear Me? being a thing.

  37. Perhaps the Kraals are a blank slate because they're just not very interesting. We already have the Sontarans, who are pretty similar. They'd have to take them in a completely different direction - in which case, why not just make something new.

  38. 'Proper' Vampires (from State of Decay); The Wirrn; the Krynoids; Sutekh; the Mentors; the Macra (Gridlock doesn't count).

  39. That's so interesting! This however begs the question, why is "Bar Tolmai" the only surname transliterated into an Apostle's name that stuck until the modern day? We do not say Barjonah or Barzebadee or Baralpheus for the other Apostels (I know Christ said to Peter "blessed are you Simon Bar Jonah" in one passage but the name did not stick past that)

  40. For several of the disciples, John's gospel is the only one where they actually have any dialogue or involvement in the story. In the other three gospels for instance, Thomas, Philip, and Nathanael/Bartholomew only occur in lists of names.

  41. We need to remember that in a multicultural society people may have more than one name. They may have a Jewish name and a Latin name.

  42. Yes, although in this case Greek rather than Latin. Greek was the main language of the eastern Roman empire, Latin in the west.

  43. It is interesting though as it is clearly of French origin, and Tolkien in one of his letters mentions that he strongly dislikes French and very consciously prefers to use words derived from Old English or Germanic languages whenever possible.

  44. It's also worth remembering that Tolkien did appreciate and engage with the Arthurian tradition, even writing Arthurian verse (albeit in a Germanic style). So those concepts of chivalry coming from the French tradition would certainly have been familiar, even though he was generally reaching back deliberately into an older framework.

  45. arthur and merlin and the knights of the round table, isn't that already sometype of english legend and myth?

  46. Arthur was king of the Britons. The English were his enemies.

  47. It depends whether you're talking about fan consensus or general public opinion. The two are often quite different.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

News Reporter