1. It's a grammatical error related to the type of noun - discrete or mass. Usage makes no difference, though surely less/fewer is always a comparison?

  2. Duolingo is wrong here. Indeed, I often find that it marks as wrong an English translation that is correct. And putting aside the "but everyone says it this way now," the rule is that you use fewer with something that is discrete and countable, like bottle, and you use less with things that are not discrete and countable, but instead is measurable, e.g., we need to use less flour or the crust will be too dry. Thus, I would not consider this to be "another correct solution" in English. I am not sure, though, whether German has the same "rule" on the linguistic equivalent of the distinction between fewer versus less. (I am A2/B1 in German.)

  3. Less than is acceptable in this sentence if you are making a comparison against wine, an uncountable noun. If you change the sentence to remove "of white wine", then fewer would be the only acceptable word.

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